03 Feb 2009
DISCLAIMER: All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental. All the information provided on this site are for educational purposes only.
More importantly, the site is in no way responsible for any misuse of the information: the objective of the article is to encourage a better defense attitude among the users and to help preventing security breaches. These information shall not be used for causing any kind of damage directly or indirectly.
It was a single-digit September's day. Walking in the streets you could feel some new cool breeze flowing on the not yet covered skin. It was a feeling Luke always loved, "Seems like we can breathe again..."
September is the best month to pass in the city: summer season is ending, driving away the muggy weather, and a little bit of energy and enthusiasm are permitted to return.
When common objects hides little secrets...
"I need a new ADSL router, I feel cut off." The day before, won by boredom and curiosity, he decided to explore more thoroughly his home router.
Maybe you don't know that most 'networked devices' on the market, including routers, modems or even printers, use as operating system some lightweight version of Linux or NetBSD. If you try an Nmap scan of your ADSL modem, you'll probably receive an output similar to this one:
Starting Nmap 4.76 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2009-02-01 15:35 CET Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1: Not shown: 995 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE 21/tcp open ftp 22/tcp open ssh 23/tcp open telnet 80/tcp open http 5431/tcp open unknown Device type: Router|WAP Running: Linux 2.4.X OS details: Linux 2.4.20 - 2.4.24 Network Distance: 1 hop
At least this was the output Luke received after scanning his Trust MD-5700. Port 80 was nothing new, he already used the web service several time to configure his internet connection.
Now he was going to try ssh. A telnet connection to these devices is not very exciting, not only for the use of an insecure channel but for the annoying habit of telnet to send only one character at a time, making the textual session similar to playing the last EA title on an old GeForce card (personal experience).
After the usual request about the key fingerprint for an unknown host, a BusyBox shell welcomed him. "Let's give a look..."
BusyBox v0.61.pre (2005.05.30-08:31+0000) Built-in shell (ash) Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.
"First of all I need some informations about the kernel version and the CPU architecture used by the device."
# ls bin etc proc usr dev lib sbin var
"Good! Seems like the /proc filesystem is mounted. I can get the informations I need from here:"
# cat /proc/version Linux version 2.4.17_mvl21-malta-mips_fp_le (guest1@localhost) (gcc version 2.95.3 20010315 (release/MontaVista)) #1 Thu Mar 25 18:10:36 CST 2004 # cat /proc/cpuinfo processor : 0 cpu model : AR7 V1.0 BogoMIPS : 203.81 wait instruction : no microsecond timers : yes extra interrupt vector : yes hardware watchpoint : yes VCED exceptions : not available VCEI exceptions : not available
"Umm, it's a MontaVista..." MontaVista is a commercial Linux distribution, very common on ADSL routers and modems used at home. One of their product is an IDE based on Eclipse called DevRocket, for the cross-development of embedded programs. "Might be interesting to ask for an evaluation copy, but I don't want to wait weeks for the delivery."
The processor was an AR7, a mips architecture. Usually, on these systems, BusyBox and other programs use UClib, a lightweight version of the C standard library. "With the correct toolchain I should be able to run my programs on this thing, even a simple tool like netcat should allow me to do funny experiments..."
After a quick search with Google, and some useless downloads (binaries for old version of Linux), he found http://www.uclibc.org/downloads/binaries/, where it is possible to download various UClib toolchain, to cross-compilate programs for multiple architectures. In particular he chose cross-compiler-mipsel.tar.bz2 for little endian MIPS processors.
How to break a router, in a few little steps.
Extracting the archive a new directory is created, containing the cross-compilation version of gcc, objdump and other common tools. "I now need a vanilla version of netcat", and pointed his browser to netcat.sourceforge.net, "not using strange libraries is perfect for a first try."
After extracting netcat, Luke looked at the contents with a bit of disappointment: "Nah, it uses the autotools. I hope it's possible to shortcut the compilation..." In the source directory only few C files and headers were present. "Let's try a standard compilation:"
mipsel-gcc *.c -o nc
The compiler complained about the undefined VERSION value in the misc.h header. So Luke added a personalized define:
#define VERSION "v 7.0 MIPSle, by TheRouterHacker"
This time the compilation completed successfully, apart from a few warnings about missing 'random routines' (not very important in this context). "I wonder why they continue to use autotools, they just slow down the compilation. And really, what system is gonna miss a working strncpy today?"
Luke returned to it's now-deauthenticated ssh session, and reconnected. To update the firmware, many routers include standard file transfer tools, like wget, ftp or tftp. In fact both wget and tftp were ready to be used. "I don't want to set up an http server just to transfer a file, let's see if I still remember some tftp tricks..."
luke@pc$ netwox 167 -r netcat/src/ root@router# cd /var/tmp && tftp -g nc 192.168.1.5
Netwox is a little tool that sometimes can come in handy. It
includes about 200 functions, the 167 being a simple tftp
server, a quick and dirty solution.
With the second command he transferred his custom version of netcat to the router, in the ramfs /var, since the other mount points were read-only squash filesystems. The only inconvenient is that every file loaded here dissolves after a reboot (on the other hand this makes the forensic analysis of the device more difficult).
router# chmod +x nc router# ./nc -h GNU netcat v 7.0 MIPSle, by TheRouterHacker, a rewrite of the famous networking tool. Basic usages: connect to somewhere: ./nc [options] hostname port [port] ... listen for inbound: ./nc -l -p port [options] [hostname] [port] ... tunnel to somewhere: ./nc -L hostname:port -p port [options] Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. Options: -c, --close close connection on EOF from stdin -e, --exec=PROGRAM program to exec after connect -g, --gateway=LIST source-routing hop point[s], up to 8 -G, --pointer=NUM source-routing pointer: 4, 8, 12, ... -h, --help display this help and exit -i, --interval=SECS delay interval for lines sent, ports scanned -l, --listen listen mode, for inbound connects -L, --tunnel=ADDR : PORT forward local port to remote address -n, --dont-resolve numeric-only IP addresses, no DNS -o, --output=FILE output hexdump traffic to FILE (implies -x) -p, --local-port=NUM local port number -r, --randomize randomize local and remote ports -s, --source=ADDRESS local source address (ip or hostname) -t, --tcp TCP mode (default) -T, --telnet answer using TELNET negotiation -u, --udp UDP mode -v, --verbose verbose (use twice to be more verbose) -V, --version output version information and exit -x, --hexdump hexdump incoming and outgoing traffic -w, --wait=SECS timeout for connects and final net reads -z, --zero zero-I/O mode (used for scanning) Remote port number can also be specified as range. Example: '1-1024'
Luke smiled, "It works! Now i just need a good idea on how to put all this to good use. Let's see if other tools are available on the system..."
Fast forward to now.
"Damn! I could not help but play with the firmware configuration tools. Now the router is bricked and of course there is no documentation on how to revive him..."
Requiescat in pace.
NOTE: This part of the story is based on real facts. Unfortunately the router retired ahead of time, and honestly I still do not know what I touched that altered the flash memory. These devices are very fragile, so do not execute unknown commands or tools even if present in seemingly harmless directories. Now the device is only accessible via ADAM2, so if someone with the same router model would like to help me fix it, a few configuration values should suffice, he can drop me an email...
"Here we are", Luke said, in front of the store of his favourite hardware reseller. He was in friendly terms with the owner and had done a few little jobs for him, sometimes being paid in kind.
"What brings you here? What have you destroyed this time?" joked the owner, knowing Luke's hobbies. "Hey, this time it wasn't my fault!"
The DLink router in all its splendor.
Luke chose a DSL-2542B, one of the last DLink models. Is common knowledge that DLink devices ship with some version of Linux, they also include a copy of th GPL license inside the box of their products. "If you continue like this, you are going to constitute a 30% of my business," the owner said a he walked away with the router.
Also this router provides an ssh server to configure it from command line. "Let's see:"
Main Menu 1. ADSL Link State 2. LAN 3. WAN 4. DNS Server 5. Route Setup 6. NAT 7. Firewall 8. Quality Of Service 9. Management 10. Passwords 11. Diag 12. Reset to Default 13. Save and Reboot 14. Exit ->
"They use a menu-driven interface that imitates the configuration web page, but i need a shell access to the device. What if I insert a random command?"
-> foo foo: not found Hit <enter> to continue
"Umm, it seems like a file not found error."
-> sh app: sh BusyBox v1.00 (2008.01.04-02:23+0000) Built-in shell (msh) Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands. #
"Lucky! Now I have my shell. This BusyBox seems much more recent then the version on the Trust. I hope the rest of the system is too:"
# cat /proc/version Linux version 18.104.22.168 (jenny@FD5) (gcc version 3.4.2) #1 Fri Jan 4 10:19:37 CST 2008 # cat /proc/cpuinfo system type : 96338W processor : 0 cpu model : BCM6338 V1.0 BogoMIPS : 239.20 wait instruction : no microsecond timers : yes tlb_entries : 32 extra interrupt vector : yes hardware watchpoint : no unaligned access : 4551171 VCED exceptions : not available VCEI exceptions : not available
"Wow, a 2.6 Kernel, I could do a lot of nice tricks with this one... But I do not want to risk another router, I need some expendable device to experiment with..." After some seconds an evil grin appeared on his face.
"I need a router that expose a command-line interface on the internet, and that runs Linux. These things are usually configured via a web interface, I could try a web scan..." Luke remembered a little program that did what he needed. The program was HttSquash, part of the complemento suite, of which had recently been released a GUI.
He downloaded and compiled the program. "Good, now I have only
to choose a network to scan." He opted for a Vietnam network: it
is very unlikely that there are arrangements for the
expatriation of foreign criminals. "Ok, range
123.*.*.1-255, port 80, timeout of 2 second. Scan started."
"Wow, this network has it all! Security cameras, routers, printers... And everything remotely accessible via an internet connection, and exposed to every kind of attack. Some Asian countries have not yet learned the lesson..."
NOTE: Indeed some countries are a real boon for people
with malicious intent. It's easy to create botnet on these
networks because the users are unaware of any security practice.
Expecially for devices like routers and printers, not perceived
as general purpose platforms. But, in reality, what differences
exist between a PC and a router mounting Linux, for the purposes
of a network cracker?
"I'll just try something trivial: let's see if they changed default passwords..." And after four or five devices that didn't oppose the minimal resistance Luke said to himself: "This place is an hacker gold mine! Just uploading a simple backdoor to these I could quickly create my own personal botnet: it's like stealing candy from a baby!" But he wasn't really into these things, he just wanted to play a bit.
"Netcat should be able to do a port scan on an internal host. It's very old school but let's try it anyway." After uploading netcat to one of the devices of the network, he launched the scan:
router# ./nc -z -v 192.168.0.5 1-1000 (UNKNOWN) [192.168.1.5] 135 (loc-srv) open (UNKNOWN) [192.168.1.5] 445 (microsoft-ds) open (UNKNOWN) [192.168.1.5] 5000 (?) open
"Hehe, seems like a Microsoft Windows system. Now I can set up a port forwarding on the router and try to connect to the SMB shares of the host using Samba, but I don't want to alert the administrator. I'll just check what informations this router gives me, when used as a proxy:"
# ./nc -p 4444 -L whatismyipaddress.com:80
Then he directed is browser to port 4444 of the compromised router. This is what he read:
|ISP:||VietNam Post and Telecom Corporation|
|Organization:||Ho Chi Minh City Post and Telecom Company (HCMPT)|
|City:||Ho Chi Minh City|
"Et voila'! A free proxy without congestion problems! Yes, life is definitely easy for crackers." But it was almost time for dinner, and having had lunch in a hasty fashion his stomach began to complain. "No more games for today. Let's see if I have anything left in the fridge..."
And after a CTRL-ALT-L he headed for the kitchen.